Job evaluation

Job evaluation refers to the techniques used to determine the relative importance of individual positions. The result of the job evaluation process is a framework where all positions, both existing and newly created positions, can be measured in their relative importance.

In most cases, the results will be used for pay determination purposes. Job evaluation techniques are used by organizations to enhance and stabilize judgements about the salary treatment of individual positions. The purpose of job evaluation is to ensure that pay relationships are internally equitable, using a common, bias-free measurement tool .

A. Overview of JOBMEAS

The JOBMEAS system of evaluation provides a sophisticated, yet practical, and easy-to-understand technique for measuring the relative weight of positions in an organization. The system is recognized for its ability to be applied to virtually all jobs in all occupational categories in a manner which is equitable and reflective of the work values that both employers and employees have.

Most organizations will use the results of job evaluation for determining pay relationships among jobs, but the link between job evaluation and pay is not a necessity.

 

JOBMEAS uses a point-factor evaluation technique which is specifically designed to treat large numbers of positions equitably in the pay determination process. The system enables direct comparisons to be made among all jobs in quantitative terms in five broad areas of measurement (domains). The transposition in quantitative terms of the qualitative evaluations is made through guide charts, one for each domain.

JOBMEAS is the product of over 20 years of research, application, and updating. The factors, or broad areas of measurement, reflect modern thought in job engineering, recruitment, and management and employee value systems. JOBMEAS is designed to be a management tool; one that consistently facilitates pay determination decisions with regard to the mission, philosophy, and needs of the organization.

C. The Measurement Areas

The JOBMEAS system of evaluation contains five distinct job measurement guide charts with a total of ten dimensions:

I. Mental Requirements

The body of knowledge required for the job and problem solving, or difficulty and complexity in applying knowledge to work situations. 

Learning Development

Learning Development, or level of knowledge, considers the level, breadth and complexity of knowledge. Knowledge typically comes from formal education, experience, and/or aptitude. Key considerations to rating knowledge are "depth" which refers to thoroughness, and "diversity" which considers the comprehensiveness, scope, and variety (e.g., different fields of knowledge). 

Problem Solving Challenges

Problem Solving Challenges refers to the type of thinking necessary to solve problems. It represents the application of knowledge to solve work assignment problems. Key considerations are the amount of independent reasoning and judgment used, the technical depth, the conversion of technical solutions to tactical and strategic actions, the time frame governing the impact of the solution, and diversity of problems solved.

II. Physical Requirements

The learned physical skills and physical effort demands when performing work. 

Learned Physical Skills

Learned Physical Skills, or the coordinative and manipulative skills, considers the time required to learn movements, speed-precision-timing-balance needed for competency, and variety of body/limb movement required.

 Physical Effort 

Physical Effort considers the actual physical work expended. Key requirements to understand are whether the effort involves walking, standing, lifting, or carrying; and whether effort is occasional, frequent, or sustained. 

III. Human Relations Requirements

The important human relations skills and the scope of contacts required to complete work assignments.

Human Relations Skill 

Human Relations Skill, refers to the skills required to deal with others. Skill relates to the degree of human relations challenges predominant in the job. Considerations include the need for persuasiveness, exchange of complex ideas to lay people, teaching or training skills, public speaking, and motivational and counseling skills.

Scope of Contacts 

Scope of Contacts, refers to the breadth and diversity of individuals and groups with whom the job incumbent must deal in order to accomplish the job's accountabilities. 

IV. Work Environment

Elements in the work setting that make it both difficult to complete work and disagreeable.

Performance Environment 

Performance Environment refers to the "extraordinary" job demands that make it difficult to complete work. Elements of the work setting include deadline pressure, interruptions in work flow, changing schedules, requirements for professional renewal, and unpredictable time demands.

 Working Conditions 

Working Conditions is defined as the locational factors which make the job disagreeable or dangerous. Key considerations for this element are safety and health issues.

V. Accountability

The level of accountability and professional development, as well as, the scope and magnitude of impact on the organization's functioning.

Level of Accountability 

Level of Accountability measures the level of accountability for work results, professional development, and the hierarchical placement of the position within the organization.

 Impact 

Impact refers to the degree to which a job directly or indirectly influences end results--the delivery of final products or services to the customer. Impact is further defined by the level or "magnitude" of influence, then within a level, the role the job plays by providing information/advice, by participating, or by directing/controlling the end result.

 

JOBMEAS does not require the evaluator to directly compare or match jobs. Job content is matched to each of the five guide charts, one at a time and independently, thus enabling a complete and objective evaluation.

B. Critical Dimensions for Effectiveness

The JOBMEAS system of evaluation achieves the elements which are critical to a sound measurement technique:

  • Enhancement of the judgement process. JOBMEAS provides a language and framework for defining jobs and making valid comparisons by translating certain job content components to the measurement technique.
  • Stabilization of the judgement process. JOBMEAS helps assure high inter-rater reliability by providing discipline, clear measures, and controls to the process.
  • Optimal weighing of measurement areas. The guide charts are weighed to ensure that the relative worth of jobs, as measured in points, accurately reflects the relative importance of the individual factors to the "whole" job. Optimal weighing also maximizes the ability of the job point value to project salary levels.
  • Fairness. JOBMEAS, by way of the design and quantifying of the guide charts, provides assurance that the job point value is reflective of its internal relative worth to the organization.

D. Principles of the Evaluation process

D.1. The evaluation of the 10 factors or dimensions of JOBMEAS

In most cases, a job description or other documentation form the basis for evaluation, though interviews are also often used to learn more about the position. 

The evaluator will evaluate the job, for each of the 10 dimensions of the JOBMEAS system.

In the example for the Mental Requirements area of measurement the evaluator has given for the Learning Development dimension a E3 score, and for the Problem solving challenge dimension a 9 score. This evaluation will be repeated for each of the 5 broad areas of measurement or domains (10 dimensions in total) for each job to be evaluated.

Those evaluations are qualitative. The number of possible levels of evaluation is relatively limited. For example, for the Mental Requirements domain, the choice for the Learning Development dimension is a 21-point scale (from A1 to G3) regrouped in 7 levels (A to G) each with 3 sublevels, while the choice open for the Problem solving challenge dimension is a 15-points scale regrouped in 5 levels (from I to V) each also with 3 sublevels.

 D.2. Transposition of the qualitative evaluation into an evaluation chart

For each of the five JOBMEASTM areas of measurement, the score given to each set of 2 dimensions are used to determine the number of points in an evaluation chart. They are 5 evaluation charts, each one corresponding to a domain.

In the example the evaluation chart has been represented, and 3 functions have been positioned (including function 17, which got a E3/9 score in the previous step).

This chart contains numerical scores representing each one of the possible score for each individual dimension. In the above mentioned example, the chart for the Mental Requirements domain contains 21 lines corresponding to the possible choices for the Learning Development dimension, and 15 columns corresponding to the possible choices for the Problem solving challenge dimension. 

In order not to overload the charts, these scores have been hidden.

D.3. Transposition of the evaluation chart into numerical scores

For each job, the evaluation made by the evaluator is transposed into a numerical score. (This is done by using the JOBMEAS software.)

In the example, the three jobs will be positioned on a curve representing the possible scores. Each of the five domains has its own curve.

D.4. Final score

The scores for one job in each of the five domains are then added to get the final job score.

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  1. E. JOBMEAS and On-going Decisions

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